Palm Fiber Pellet Machine – Palm fiber or palm silk is a kind of biomass materials is by-product of palm after oil extraction. It is also called EFB for short. It is featured of high content of oil and water, high hardness and strong tenacity. According to the policies of Thailand and other countries to promote biofuel as renewable energy, oil palm cultivated area has been increasing.
Fuel plays an important role in household, business, and industrial sectors. Especially, in business and industrial uses which about 60% of energy used are imported. Thus, sustainable fuel energy development in Thailand and similar countries must consider limited energy resources and there usage.
Selected fuel must be cheap, abundant, and environmental friendly. According to the policies of Thailand and other countries to promote biofuel as renewable energy, oil palm cultivated area has been increasing.
Crude palm oil production left large amount of palm fiber and shell as waste. To increase their value, palm fiber and shell were selected to be raw materials of pelletized fuel.
Despite most wastes from palm oil production are currently used, i.e. palm shell is sold to be fuel in other industries or used as raw material for pellets, empty palm fruit brunch is used for mushroom production, and palm fiber is used as fuel for electricity and steam production in factories; a lot of palm fiber is still left as waste because its bulky particles which are difficult for transportation.
Palm fiber is a possible raw material to be pelletized to be used in industrial furnace. There were a lot of researches reported that biowaste such as bean pod, cereal husk, cotton waste, wheat straw, etc.; can be pelletized to be utilized as good fuel.
Parameters of Palm EFB Pellets:
|Palm EFB Pellet Diameter||6-10mm|
|Thermal Value||4000 kcal/kg|
1. RICHI palm kernel pellet making machine adopts advanced gear-driving system with motors, stable and reliable.
2. RICHI efb pellets equipment adopts high-qualified components, with stable performance, long service life and low noise.
3. Whole transmission parts (including motor) of this palm pellet machine chooses high-quality SKF bearings to ensure the transmission efficient, stable, low noise. Main motor choose Siemens.
4. This palm fibre pellet mill machine is equipped with full single layer stainless steel feeder, forced feeder, ring die and cutter .
5. Adopting international advanced technology on this palm kernel pellets making machine: German gun drill and vacuum furnace heat manufacturing process in ring die making to ensure the pellets smooth and of high quality.
Generally, the EFB pellets production is in large scale. Then our ring die EFB pellet machine is the most suitable machine for compressing the high density EFB fiber. Adopt high-precision gear driving, the output is improved by about 20% compared with the belt drive one. Imported high-quality bearings and oil seal are adopted to ensure efficient, stable and low-noise operation.
The mixed or tempered pulverized palm fiber/palm shell material passes through the chute through the compression mold cover, and is uniformly fed into the two pressing areas in the palm kernel cake(PKC) pellet machine ring die by gravity, centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the ring die, and the action of the feeding scraper.
Under the strong extrusion of the palm fiber pellet machine rollers, the material is gradually compacted and extruded into the die hole of the ring die to form. Since the extrusion of the material between the die rollers is continuous, the formed material continuously emerges from the die hole. The column is discharged, and then a cutter is cut into the required length of particles, and then enters the next palm pellet production line process.
|Capacity||300-400kg/h||500-700kg/h||1.0-1.2 t/h||2.0-2.5 t/h||2.5-4 t/h||3-4.5 t/h|
The optimum ratio of palm pellet fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated.
From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339%, which was higher than the standard.
Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247%, which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard.
At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N.
Palm fiber contains significantly high ash content (9.84%). It composes of 43.25% carbon, 28.65% oxygen, 5.93% hydrogen, and the rests 0.12 to 0.39% are sulfur and nitrogen. It can be calculated that heating value of palm fiber is 19.62 MJ/kg which is slightly higher than palm shell (17.776 MJ/kg).
Chemical composites of palm fiber and palm shell are similar (Table 2). The main chemical composition are SiO2, CaO, Al2O3 and K2O. It is also shown that palm fiber contains Al2O3, SiO2, CaO and Fe2O3 more than palm shell.
|Composition of palm fiber and palm shell|
|Approximate analysis (wt%)&Ultimate analysis (wt%)||Palm fiber||Palm shell|
|Heating value(MJ/kg) 8||19.06||17.7|
|Chemical composites of palm fiber and palm shell|
|Composite||Palm fiber||Palm shell|
Waste glycerin generated from transesterification process contains alcohol, catalyst residue, carry-over fat/oil, and some esters. Heating value of glycerin is slightly less than palm fiber and palm shell. A kilogram of glycerin burned gives 19.71 MJ/kg of energy.
Experiment had been done to study particle size, raw material: water: waste glycerol ratio, temperature of adhesive (waste glycerol), palm fiber and palm shell ratio; to find optimum condition of ingredient for pelletized efb pellet fuel. The best practice efb pellets made by oil palm fronds pellet machine was considered by pelletized percent, density, heating value, ash content, moisture content, volatile matter, and fix carbon content.
Particle size of palm fiber affects pelletized percent, specific density; but do not affect moisture content of pellets and ash content which is different insignificant values. Using mixed particle size (<2 mm), the palm pellets made by palm wood pellet machine will have more than 50 pelletized percent.
Moreover, the efb pellets have high specific density and lowest ash content. For small particle (<0.5 mm), pelletized percent and density of the pellets are higher than 0.5 to 1.0 mm particles. It is also found that, the smaller particles, the higher ash content in pelletized palm fuel.
High water ratio lowers heating value of palm pellets because the higher water ratio, the more energy to dry the fuel. The higher waste glycerol ratio, the higher pellet density. Pelletized percent and heating value are also increase with glycerol ratio. Moreover, adding glycerol as adhesive increase fix carbon content of palm pelelts but decrease pelletized percent.
In generally, ash, bulk density, heating value, pelletized percent, fix carbon content, and volatile matter; affect quality of efb pellets fuel in different way - i.e. low ash increase combustibility, high bulk density fuel is convenient to be transported, heating value must be high enough to supply the need of industries, high pelletized percent will make higher yield for EFB pelletizing process, etc.
Furthermore, high fix carbon content and volatile matter pellets made by palm pellet machine are easy to be combusted but have higher smoke. In the other hand, low volatile matter pellet have higher density. From experiment, optimum ratio of pelletized fuel ingredient - raw material (palm fiber): water: waste glycerol; was equal to 50: 10: 40 respectively. Pellets at this ratio which contain only palm fiber as raw material have acceptable quality in almost all parameters according to fuel standard except ash content that higher than the standard.
The palm pellets must be reacted by horizontal force due to packaging, storage, and transportation. Therefore, horizontal compressive strength of efb pellets must be considered. It was found that pellet with raw material ratio 80:20 (wt%) of palm fiber and palm shell respectively with particle size of raw material <2 mm, and added heated glycerol at optimum ratio of 50:10:40 (wt%) raw material, water, glycerol respectively; had average horizontal compressive force 5.37 MPa.
The creation of waste pellets by converting waste from crude palm oil industry and biodiesel production to create compressed pellets is suitable for combustion as an energy sources. The process is easy and does not require heat input or a chemical change.
Energy content of pellets composing glycerin and biomass is 19.7 MJ/kg of pellet which is more than some another wastes such as dry wood, household waste, waste wood, and animal waste.
The efb wood pellet plant pelletisation process consists of multiple steps, including pre-treatment of raw material, pelletisation, and post-treatment. The figure below presents the schematic of the palm pellet production process.
Generally speaking, just using a palm pellet press machine cannot support efficient efb pellet processing, and equipment for making efb pellet such as good quality efb sawdust hammer mill, high efficiency wood chips, high drying efficiency efb rotary dryer, efb pellet cooler machine, pellet screening machine, biomass pellet bagging machine, etc., sre also required. The complete efb pellet manufacturing process includes:
Economic analysis of efb pellet fuel production must consider relationship of cost, revenue, and profit; according to pelletizing process. Those parameters are:
Moreover, feasibility study of efb pellets must consider cost and price per energy unit, market, and target consumer (i.e. household consumer, industrial consumer) needs. From cost of pelletized fuel analysis, cost of pelletized fuel is lower than normal coal cost used in industry.
Richi Machinery is a professional manufacturing enterprise integrating scientific research and development, manufacturing, sales and service. We have developed and manufactured multifunctional pelletizers, grinders, mixers, dryers and more than ten categories and more than 30 models of complete machine products are widely used in feed, biomass, organic fertilizer, pet supplies, solid waste recycling, chemical industry, road construction and other fields. All RICHI products have passed ISO9001:2008 international quality system certification, EU CE certification and Customs Union CU-TR certification, successfully serving more than 2,000 customers in more than 100 countries and regions around the world.Get Price & Service
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