From the perspective of nutrition and feed, the regulation of nutrition and immune stimulation can greatly improve the autoimmune activity of shrimp, thereby reducing the incidence of shrimp disease or mortality after onset. These studies are necessary guarantees to promote the healthy and sustainable development of the shrimp farming industry. Below, the author from the perspective of technical application and practice to talk about some of the basic understanding of functional immune shrimp feed, in order to provide reference for the development of the industry, for industry colleagues to discuss axe.
From the application technology, the functional immunization feed of shrimp can reduce the occurrence of shrimp disease from three angles: one is to improve the innate immunity of shrimp by nutritional balance or immune stimulation; the other is to reduce the stress of shrimp by improving the breeding environment; Control the growth or infection probability of pathogens through the regulation of internal and external environment. fish feed pellet extruder.
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Immune regulation of shrimp by nutrition and additive pathways
There is a close relationship between nutrients and animal immunity. Most nutrient deficiencies affect the animal's immune response. Taking the most basic nutrient protein as an example, the inability to meet the required protein levels will have a negative impact on aquatic animal immunity. As far as shrimp feed is concerned, we have always advocated that the protein level of the feed should be compatible with the shrimp farming model. In soil ponds or low-density culture conditions, feed water levels are not required to be high due to the ability of water algae and plankton to provide a portion of the protein.
However, in the high-position pool, small shed or factory farming conditions, the environment can supply very limited nutrients, so it is necessary to supplement the higher digestible protein to meet its growth needs, and only higher levels and balance. The protein can meet its immune requirements. The relationship between protein and immunity is ultimately the relationship between amino acid and immunity. The innate immunity of shrimp is closely related to essential amino acid index (EAAI). Studies have shown that the reasonable balance of amino acids such as lysine, methionine, isoleucine and proline has a significant impact on the immunity of shrimp. Of all the essential amino acids, threonine and arginine have the most prominent effects on shrimp immunity.
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In addition to proteins and amino acids, the immune functions of essential fatty acids (EFA), vitamins A, D, C, B6, B12, folic acid, and trace elements such as iron, zinc, and selenium have been studied. From a nutritional point of view, "it is too late", the addition of these nutrients has never been as good as possible. According to the species and culture mode of the farmed animals, the animal immunity can be improved. fish feed pellet extruder fish feed pellet extruder fish feed pellet extruder
In addition to the rational balance of nutrients, more research has focused on the immunomodulation of immune enhancers on aquatic animals. Immunopotentiators are a class of chemicals that stimulate white blood cell activity and thereby increase the animal's ability to fight viruses, bacteria or other pathogens. For crustaceans, the activity of the phenol oxidase system and its related factors are enhanced. So far, many immunostimulants have been studied including bacterial structural substances, mannooligosaccharides, β-1,3/1,6-glucan, small peptides, polysaccharides, nucleotides and other chemical synthetic products. fish feed pellet extruder fish feed pellet extruder fish feed pellet extruder
It should be pointed out that the more the immune enhancer is added, the better. Many studies have shown that the immune effect of the immunopotentiator is not positively correlated with the dose used. For the use of immunopotentiators, first, reasonable compatibility is very important. In addition, reasonable dosage is also very important. All immunostimulatory substances should be tested repeatedly on animals to fully explain their effects on animals. For example, lipopolysaccharide is an effective immunostimulant in vitro, but certain signal molecules are produced when the dose is slightly above the "safe" dose. Reduce animal appetite and even inhibit the growth of animals. Again, in the case of oral immunopotentiators, "immune fatigue" is prevalent, that is, the treatment group containing the immunopotentiator continuously continues to return to a normal level after the immune level rises. Therefore, after the animal produces immune fatigue, how to physiologically awaken its immune system through nutrition or immune regulation is worthy of attention of every technician.
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