Wood pellets are a kind of biomass pellets. The production of wood pellets cannot be separated from the wood pellet machine and other equipment of the wood pellet production line, such as wood crushers, coolers, and screening systems. When some investors saw that many people who invested in wood pellets were profitable, they also wanted to invest. But they does not know much about wood pellet plant. How much does the wood pellet plant cost to produce 1 ton of pellets? Here is a detailed record of the local raw material cost, production energy cost, equipment wearing parts consumption and maintenance cost, packaging cost, labor cost, management cost, loan relationship and total cost of investing in a wood pellet plant.
How Much Does the Wood Pellet Plant Cost to Produce 1 Ton of Pellets
1.Raw material cost
The purchasing price of wood materials (such as sawdust, wood chips and wood shavings) on the spot is ￥320-380/t, which will grow in the future. Let’s calculate by the price of ￥400/t. As wood materials usually contain 38% water content in average, we need to low down it to 8%. After subtracting the water weight, the unite price of wood materials is 400÷(100-38+8)×100=￥571/t.
2.Power consumption cost
The power consumption includes 2 parts, one is for the wood pellet production, the other is for the raw materials drying.
The electricity price is about ￥0.83/KWH. The unit power consumption of a wood pellet production line is about 90KWH. So the unit energy cost is 90×0.83=￥74.7/t
The drying process also require fuels. To reduce the cost, we can use wood cuts, scraps, and blocks in the raw materials as fuel. Their price is ￥340/t. To dry every 1 ton of raw materials require 0.04-0.055 tons of fuels. We can calculate by the average number 0.047. So the drying fuel cost is 340×0.047=￥15.98/t. If the raw materials moisture content is low, less fuels are required.
To sum up, the power consumption cost is 74.7+15.98=￥90.68/t
3.Equipment wearing parts consumption and maintenance costs
According to the above-mentioned scale calculation, the consumption of vulnerable parts (molds, rollers, lubricants, seals, etc.) per 300 tons of finished wood pellets is ￥5000 (empirical data), and the unit cost is: 5000÷500=￥16.67/t .
4.Equipment depreciation and maintenance
According to the production scale mentioned above, to produce 300 tons of wood pellets, the wearing parts cost (such as dies, rollers, lubricating oil, and sealing elements) is ￥5000. So the unit cost of wear and tear is 5000÷300=￥16.67/t
For big customers, the wood pellets can be transported by tank lorries in bulks. For small and medium sized users, they must be packed in bags to prevent breaking and damp. Usually the package volume is 25kg. 1 ton of wood pellets need 40 bags, with everyone cost 0.55. so the unit packaging cost is 40×0.55=22/t
For this production scale, you need to hire 4 operators. One for raw materials drying and mixing, one for feeding raw materials, one for controlling the pellet machine, and one for packaging. The average worker salary is ￥2900. So, the entire labor cost is 2900×4=￥11600/month. Divided by the monthly production, the unit labor cost is 11600÷1200=￥9.6/t.
7.Operation and management cost
This cost includes office expenses, housing rent, meals, taxes, industry and commerce fees. This cost is hard to count, so we measure it by a typical wood pellet factory in China. It spends 20000 every month in operation and management. So the unit cost is 20000÷1200=￥16.67/t.
8.Pay loan and interests
This cost varies with different conditions of the investors. It is difficult to count. So I don’t include it into the production cost. Investors can deduct it from the revenues.
9.Total production cost
By adding up the costs above, we can work out the total cost for producing 1 ton wood pellets is about ￥780.44. This is the Break-Even Point. If the price is lower than this point, the company would suffer losses. On the premise of certain amount of profits, the reasonable selling prices should be over ￥920～950/t, or the company would be hard to scale up and develop technology. On the other hand, the company can lower the production cost by reducing power consumption, improve the management efficiency. From the analysis above, we find that raw materials take up the largest cost of the production. We can reduce the raw material cost by locating the factory near the raw material source, and choosing those with low moisture content.
At last, the analysis above is based on China’s condition. The production cost varies in different places. But no matter where the factory is, these cost items are similar. By counting the unit cost of wood pellet production, you can set your selling price and production scale more reasonably.
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